The BIA is the highest administrative body for interpreting and applying immigration law. Most appeals consist of a “paper review” of cases, but on rare occasions, the BIA will hear oral arguments. The BIA has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals from certain decisions rendered by immigration judges in court, and by district directors of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in a wide variety of proceedings. The BIA mostly decides appeals from orders of removal and applications for relief from removal. It also decides cases involving the exclusion of aliens applying for admission to the United States, immigrant visa petitions, fines imposed upon carriers for the violation of immigration laws, and motions to reopen or reconsider a previous decision. All DHS officers and immigration judges must follow published BIA decisions, unless modified or overruled by the Attorney General or a federal court. Most BIA decisions are subject to judicial review in the federal courts.